Nutraceutical potential of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) extracts: physicochemical stability and bioaccessibility of cannabidiol (CBD) nanoemulsions†
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the most promising functional food ingredients, which displays a number of health benefits. However, its low solubility and bioavailability impede its applications in functional foods. Herein, we developed a food-grade CBD nanoemulsion system using medium chain triacylglycerides (MCT), canola oil (CO), or hemp seed oil (HSO) as the carrier oil to compare the physicochemical stability and bioaccessibility of CBD. Encouragingly, all formulations were well maintained for 90 days under the tested temperatures (4, 25 and 37 °C) and pH values (3.5 and 7.0). Quantitative analysis of CBD during storage using high performance liquid chromatography revealed that the light exposure and acidity of the solution are two important factors affecting the chemical stability of CBD. Moreover, improved bioaccessibility of CBD in all three nanoemulsion formulations compared to that of bulk oil forms was confirmed, and the long chain triacylglyceride (LCT)-based nanoemulsion was superior to the MCT-based counterpart.