Tunable fluorescence emission based on multi-layered MOF-on-MOF†
Luminescent metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have garnered considerable attention in various fields. Herein, we proposed a hierarchical confinement strategy based on MOF-on-MOF to tune luminescence emission ranging from blue to red including white light in a flexible way. The easily available ZIF-8 MOF was used as a host for the confinement of two kinds of size-matching dyes (perylene and rhodamine B) to obtain a layered ZIF-8@dye@ZIF-8@dye via in situ encapsulation and seed-mediated synthesis. ZIF-8@dye@ZIF-8@dye materials with different fluorescence emission in dispersed and solid states were both obtained by tuning the initial encapsulation concentration of dye and changing the structure of the inner and outer ZIF-8@dye layers. To our delight, ZIFfirstname.lastname@example.org@ZIF-8@25RhB with white light emission in the dispersed state was obtained; meanwhile, ZIFemail@example.com + 25RhB and mechanically mixed ZIFfirstname.lastname@example.org + ZIF-8@25RhB could not realize white light emission under the same conditions, indicating that the proposed hierarchical confinement strategy facilitated white light regulation. Similarly, the emission of ZIF-8@dye@ZIF-8@dye in the solid state has also been investigated; ZIF-8@perylene@ZIF-8@3RhB with white light emission was obtained, while white light emission could not be achieved in ZIF-8@perylene + 3RhB and ZIF-8@perylene + ZIF-8@3RhB, which further indicated the importance of the hierarchical confinement strategy based on MOF-on-MOF. The proposed hierarchical confinement strategy may also inspire the development of other functional optical MOF materials.