Correlation of solid-state order to optoelectronic behavior in heterocyclic oligomers†
A longstanding challenge in the field of optoelectronic materials, the effects of solid-state arrangement and morphology are still a prominent factor associated with small-molecule and polymer-based device performance. Here, mixed heterocyclic aromatic oligomers containing thiophene, furan and pyrazine are prepared alongside their methylated congeners. Their solution and solid-phase properties were studied via spectroscopic, electrochemical and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Comparative analysis between solid-state packing arrangements and photophysical properties revealed optical band gaps as low as 1.7 eV with Stokes-shifts up to 130 nm and quantum yields of 12%. Results of the study aid in further understanding the effects of molecular and solid-state arrangements that give rise to unique optical and photophysical properties critical to enhancing optoelectronic behavior.