Rapid detection and quantification of the adulteration of orange juice with grapefruit juice using handheld Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis
Detecting food adulteration has always been an important task for food safety, especially when grapefruit is the adulterant as components in the juice have undesired interactions with many medicines. In this study we employed a handheld Raman device to detect adulteration of orange juices with grapefruit juices. Fresh fruits of orange and grapefruit were purchased from five different sources and fruit juices were made using a handheld juicer. The extracted juices were then mixed in a way that concentrations of grapefruit juices varied from 0% to 100% in 5% increments. In order to study the impact of the different sources of the fruits, three different sets of mixtures were prepared based on their spectral similarity and dissimilarity. Raman spectra were collected using a handheld instrument with an excitation laser at 785 nm and data analysed using principal component analysis (PCA), principal component-discriminant function analysis (PC-DFA) and partial least squares regression (PLS-R). PLS-R models were trained and validated on: (i) the full data set from the three different mixture sets, and (ii) each set of the three mixtures separately. The results showed that a good calibration model was obtained using full data which had a coefficient of determination (Q2) of 0.81 and a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 12.5%. Such results were improved when the PLS-R model was trained and validated on the three separate mixture combinations, where the Q2 varied from 0.85 to 0.89 and RMSEP varied from 9.9% to 11.6%. Finally, we adopted a two step approach in which a partial least squares for discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was trained first to classify the three sample sources and then three different PLS-R models were subsequently trained on samples from the same source. This resulted in a Q2 of 0.83 and RMSEP of 12.0%. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy can be used as a portable and rapid analytical tool for detecting adulteration of grapefruit juice added to orange juice.