Metabolomics-based mass spectrometry methods to analyze the chemical content of 3D organoid models
Metabolomics, the study of metabolites present in biological samples, can provide a global view of sample state as well as insights into biological changes caused by disease or environmental interactions. Mass spectrometry (MS) is commonly used for metabolomics analysis given its high-throughput capabilities, high sensitivity, and capacity to identify multiple compounds in complex samples simultaneously. MS can be coupled to separation methods that can handle small volumes, making it well suited for analyzing the metabolome of organoids, miniaturized three-dimensional aggregates of stem cells that model in vivo organs. Organoids are being used in research efforts to study human disease and development, and in the design of personalized drug treatments. For organoid models to be useful, they need to recapitulate morphological and chemical aspects, such as the metabolome, of the parent tissue. This review highlights the separation- and imaging-based MS-based metabolomics methods that have been used to analyze the chemical contents of organoids. Future perspectives on how MS techniques can be optimized to determine the accuracy of organoid models and expand the field of organoid research are also discussed.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Analyst HOT Articles 2022 and Analyst Review Articles 2022