Current progress of metal sulfides derived from metal–organic frameworks for advanced electrocatalysis: potential electrocatalysts with diverse applications
The large-scale application of clean electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems such as water-splitting devices and Zn–air batteries greatly depends on the development of low-cost and highly efficient electrocatalysts. Transitional metal sulfides (TMSs) have gained great research interest owing to their high intrinsic catalytic activity, adjustable electronic structures, and various crystal structures and phases. Meanwhile, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are ideal precursors for the preparation of TMSs due to the diverse metal nodes, organic ligands, topologies, and morphologies of MOFs. In addition, MOFs could act as hosts for the incorporation of guest molecules, which could further expand the metal types of TMSs. In this review, the recent progress of MOF-derived TMS electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions (HERs), oxygen evolution reactions (OERs) and oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) are summarized. After a brief introduction to the reaction mechanisms, the preparation strategies, structures, catalytic performances, and catalytic mechanisms of the TMSs are discussed to give readers a comprehensive understanding of this prosperous field. The strategies such as nanostructure engineering, interface engineering and heteroatom doping used to improve the performance of the electrocatalysts are discussed in each section. In addition, bifunctional catalytic performances of the catalysts for overall water splitting and rechargeable Zn–air batteries are illustrated. Furthermore, challenges and opportunities for the future development of this field are proposed. We expect this review could provide guidelines for the design and fabrication of TMSs, and initiate more efforts and new discoveries in this emerging research area.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Journal of Materials Chemistry A Recent Review Articles