Material design and surface chemistry for advanced rechargeable zinc–air batteries
Zinc–air batteries (ZABs) have been considered as a next-generation battery system with high energy density and abundant resources. However, the sluggish multi-step reaction of the oxygen is the main obstacle for the practical application of ZABs. Therefore, bifunctional electrocatalysts with high stability and activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are greatly required to promote the catalytic reaction. In this review, we first explain the reaction mechanism of the ZABs, mainly focusing on multiple oxygen intermediates. Then, the latest studies on bifunctional electrocatalysts for the air cathodes and their progress of the ZABs are discussed with following aspects: platinum group metal, metal-free, transition metal, and metal compound-derived electrocatalysts. Finally, we highlight the advanced ZAB systems with the design of the full-temperature range operation, the all-solid-state, and the newly reported non-alkaline electrolyte, summarizing the remaining challenges and requirements of the future research directions.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2022 Chemical Science Perspective & Review Collection