Materials nanoarchitectonics in a two-dimensional world within a nanoscale distance from the liquid phase
Promoted understanding of nanotechnology has enabled the construction of functional materials with nanoscale-regulated structures. Accordingly, materials science requires one-step further innovation by coupling nanotechnology with the other materials sciences. As a post-nanotechnology concept, nanoarchitectonics has recently been proposed. It is a methodology to architect functional material systems using atomic, molecular, and nanomaterial unit-components. One of the attractive methodologies would be to develop nanoarchitectonics in a defined dimensional environment with certain dynamism, such as liquid interfaces. However, nanoarchitectonics at liquid interfaces has not been fully explored because of difficulties in direct observations and evaluations with high-resolutions. This unsatisfied situation in the nanoscale understanding of liquid interfaces may keep liquid interfaces as unexplored and attractive frontiers in nanotechnology and nanoarchitectonics. Research efforts related to materials nanoarchitectonics on liquid interfaces have been continuously made. As exemplified in this review paper, a wide range of materials can be organized and functionalized on liquid interfaces, including organic molecules, inorganic nanomaterials, hybrids, organic semiconductor thin films, proteins, and stem cells. Two-dimensional nanocarbon sheets have been fabricated by molecular reactions at dynamically moving interfaces, and metal–organic frameworks and covalent organic frameworks have been fabricated by specific interactions and reactions at liquid interfaces. Therefore, functions such as sensors, devices, energy-related applications, and cell control are being explored. In fact, the potential for the nanoarchitectonics of functional materials in two-dimensional nanospaces at liquid surfaces is sufficiently high. On the basis of these backgrounds, this short review article describes recent approaches to materials nanoarchitectonics in a liquid-based two-dimensional world, i.e., interfacial regions within a nanoscale distance from the liquid phase.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Recent Review Articles and Design and function of materials nanoarchitectonics