Zirconia-based nanomaterials: recent developments in synthesis and applications
In the last decade, the whole scientific community has witnessed great advances and progress in the various fields of nanoscience. Among the different nanomaterials, zirconia nanomaterials have found numerous applications as nanocatalysts, nanosensors, adsorbents, etc. Additionally, their exceptional biomedical applications in dentistry and drug delivery, and interesting biological properties, viz. anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-cancer activity, have further motivated the researchers to explore their physico-chemical properties using different synthetic pathways. With such an interest in zirconia-based nanomaterials, the present review focuses systematically on different synthesis approaches and their impact on the structure, size, shape, and morphology of these nanomaterials. Broadly, there are two approaches, viz., chemical synthesis which includes hydrothermal, solvothermal, sol–gel, microwave, solution combustion, and co-precipitation methods, and a greener approach which employs bacteria, fungus, and plant parts for the preparation of zirconia nanoparticles. In this review article, the aforementioned methods have been critically analyzed for obtaining specific phases and shapes. The review also incorporates a detailed survey of the applications of zirconia-based nanomaterials. Furthermore, the influence of specific phases, morphology, and the comparison with their counterpart composites for different applications have also been included. Finally, the concluding remarks, prospects and possible scope are given in the last section.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles