Issue 7, 2022

Photomemristive sensing via charge storage in 2D carbon nitrides


Photomemristive sensors have the potential to innovate current photo-electrochemical sensors by incorporating new sensing capabilities including non-invasive, wireless and time-delayed (memory) readout. Here we report the charge storing 2D carbon nitride potassium poly(heptazine imide), K-PHI, as a direct photomemristive sensing platform by capitalizing on K-PHI's visible light bandgap, large oxidation potential, and intrinsic optoionic charge storage properties. Utilizing the light-induced charge storage function of K-PHI nanosheets, we demonstrate memory sensing via charge accumulation and present potentiometric, impedimetric and coulometric readouts to write/erase this information from the material, with no additional reagents required. Additionally, wireless colorimetric and fluorometric detection of the charging state of K-PHI nanoparticles is demonstrated, enabling the material's use as particle-based autonomous sensing probe in situ. The various readout options of K-PHI's response enable us to adapt the sensitivities and dynamic ranges without modifying the sensing platform, which is demonstrated using glucose as a model analyte over a wide range of concentrations (50 μM to 50 mM). Since K-PHI is earth abundant, biocompatible, chemically robust and responsive to visible light, we anticipate that the photomemristive sensing platform presented herein opens up memristive and neuromorphic functions.

Graphical abstract: Photomemristive sensing via charge storage in 2D carbon nitrides

Supplementary files

Article information

Article type
19 Jan 2022
12 Apr 2022
First published
26 Apr 2022
This article is Open Access
Creative Commons BY license

Mater. Horiz., 2022,9, 1866-1877

Photomemristive sensing via charge storage in 2D carbon nitrides

A. Gouder, A. Jiménez-Solano, N. M. Vargas-Barbosa, F. Podjaski and B. V. Lotsch, Mater. Horiz., 2022, 9, 1866 DOI: 10.1039/D2MH00069E

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