Supported nanocatalysts: recent developments in microwave synthesis for application in heterogeneous catalysis†
The synthesis of nanocatalysts on high surface area solid supports is gaining attention from synthetic chemists for application in heterogeneous catalysis due to their high catalytic performance and easy recoverability. However, the synthesis of nanocatalysts on solid supports mostly composed of metals/metal oxides/hybrids is challenging for researchers considering their durability and discrete nano-dispersibility. Microwave (MW)-assisted synthetic methods, attractive as fast and green approaches, are being widely studied for the synthesis of solid-supported nanocatalysts. This review article describes recent advances devoted towards MW-assisted synthetic strategies for creating nanostructured catalysts on solid supports, as well as their characterization and applications in catalyzing various organic transformations, including electrocatalysis. The sustainable use of solid-supported nanocatalysts is then discussed in comparison with similar supported nanocatalysts prepared by conventional methods. The pros and cons of MW-assisted strategies for the synthesis of solid-supported nanocatalysts are then summarized, and their limitations as well as future directions for further investigation are emphasized.