Addition of grapes to both a standard and a high-fat Western pattern diet modifies hepatic and urinary metabolite profiles in the mouse†
The benefits of fruit and vegetable dietary consumption are largely defined in epidemiological terms. Relatively little is known about the discrete effects on metabolic pathways elicited by individual dietary fruits and vegetables. To address this, grape powder was added to both a standard and a high-fat Western pattern diet given to 10-week-old female C57BL/6J mice for a period of 91 days, whereupon 24 h urines were collected and the mice euthanized after a 12 h fast for the collection of liver tissue. Alterations in hepatic and urinary metabolite patterns were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Urinary excretion of the gut microbiota metabolites 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindole, glyceric acid, gluconic acid and myo-inositol was attenuated when grape was added to the standard diet but the gut microbiota metabolites gluconic acid, scyllo-inositol, mannitol, xylitol, 5-hydroxyindole and 2-deoxyribonic acid were increased in urine when grape was added to the high-fat diet. Increased hepatic ascorbic acid and 5-oxoproline levels indicated the anti-oxidant effect of grape powder on the liver. Pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that for both standard and high-fat diets, grape addition significantly upregulated the malate-aspartate shuttle indicating enhanced hepatic utilization of glucose via cytosolic glycolysis for mitochondrial ATP production. It is concluded that a grape diet reprogrammes gut microbiota metabolism, attenuates the hepatic oxidative stress of a high-fat diet and increases the efficiency of glucose utilization by the liver for energy production.