Biological properties and therapeutic applications of garlic and its components
Garlic is one of the most widely employed condiments in cooking. It has also been used since ancient times in traditional plant-based medicine, largely based on its organosulfur compounds. The objective of this study was to provide updated information on the biological and therapeutic garlic properties. Garlic has been found to possess important biological properties with high therapeutic potential, which is influenced by the mode of its utilization, preparation, and extraction. It has been attributed with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory capacities. Garlic, in particular its organosulfur compounds, can maintain immune system homeostasis through positive effects on immune cells, especially by regulating cytokine proliferation and expression. This may underlie their usefulness in the treatment of infectious and tumor processes. These compounds can also offer vascular benefits by regulating lipid metabolism or by exerting antihypertensive and antiaggregant effects. However, further clinical trials are warranted to confirm the therapeutic potential of garlic and its derivatives.