Toward practical lithium-ion battery recycling: adding value, tackling circularity and recycling-oriented design
Environmental pollution and critical materials loss from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is a major global concern. Practical LIB recycling obviates pollution, saves resources and boosts sustainability. However, despite increasing research interest, there is no agreed economic or sustainable automotive battery recycling. In this review, we critically assess advances in automotive LIB recycling with emphasis on practical advantages and design. We rank and compare a range of recycling methods, including present status and how these can be made practically sustainable. We examine the closed-loop design of new batteries to boost recycling performance and critically assess the possible recycling-oriented design of cell configuration, electrode and materials for recycling. We conclude with an appraisal of further research directions including, pre-treatments for recycling, advanced recycling technologies and new cycling-oriented designs for sustainable recycling of LIBs.