Vibrational mode analysis of hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs): synchrotron infrared studies†
Hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs) are a promising class of porous crystalline materials for gas sorption and gas separation technologies that can be constructed under mild synthetic conditions. In forming three-dimensional networks of flexible hydrogen bonds between donor/acceptor subunits, these materials have displayed high stability at elevated temperature and under vacuum. Although the structural properties of HOFs are commonly characterized by diffraction techniques, new complimentary methods to elucidate phase behaviour and host–guest interactions at the molecular level are sought, particularly those that can be applied under changing physical conditions or solvent environment. To this end, this study has applied synchrotron far-IR and mid-IR spectroscopy to probe the properties of two known and one new HOF system assembled from tetrahedral amidinium and carboxylate building blocks. All three frameworks produce feature-rich and resolved infrared profiles from 30 to 4000 cm−1 that provide information on hydrogen-bonded water solvent networks and the HOF channel topography via lattice and torsional bands. Comparison of experimental peaks to frequencies and atomic displacements (eigenvectors) predicted by high-level periodic DFT calculations have allowed for the assignment of vibrational modes associated with the aforementioned physicochemical properties. Now compiled, the specific vibrational modes identified as common to charge-assisted hydrogen-bonding motifs, as well as low frequency lattice and torsional bands attributed to HOF pore morphology and water-of-hydration networks, can act as diagnostic features in future spectroscopic investigations of HOF properties, such as those toward the design and tuning of host–guest properties for targeted applications.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2022 PCCP HOT Articles