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Alternative anodes for low temperature lithium-ion batteries

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Abstract

Li-ion batteries (LIBs) have become critical components in the manufacture of electric vehicles (EVs) as they offer the best all-round performance compared to competing battery chemistries. However, LIB performance at low temperature (LT) extremes of EV operation (typically −40 to 0 °C) suffers from a reduced output and diminished cycle life. LT cycling increases cell impedance, diminishing Li ion diffusion through the cell, exacerbating electrode polarisation, and hindering interfacial Li+ desolvation. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of (i) the factors that influence LT Li-ion performance, (ii) outline the shortcomings of the current state-of-the-art and (iii) discuss recent findings in the field, focusing on alternative anode materials with particular emphasis on high-capacity, fast charging alternatives to the archetypal carbon (graphite) anode. Different approaches to improve LT LIB performance are outlined in an in-depth analysis of recent improvements from the anode perspective. These include electrolyte-driven enhancements, the resurgence of Li metal batteries, the impact of conductive coatings, elemental doping and nanocomposite formation, substitution of intercalating anodes with high-capacity Li alloying and Li conversion materials, and fast redox pseudocapacitance.

Graphical abstract: Alternative anodes for low temperature lithium-ion batteries

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Article information


Submitted
02 Feb 2021
Accepted
11 May 2021
First published
18 May 2021

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2021, Advance Article
Article type
Review Article

Alternative anodes for low temperature lithium-ion batteries

G. A. Collins, H. Geaney and K. M. Ryan, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2021, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/D1TA00998B

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