Sustainable materials for off-grid battery applications: advances, challenges and prospects
The implementation of sustainable batteries coupled to renewable energy conversion systems in off-grid, poor and remote communities will overcome some of the technological challenges for electrification, such as the difficult geographical and cost accessibility, improving their modest technical capabilities and making the full system ecofriendly. Besides, their application to power off-grid “structures and facilities” requiring a large amount of energy (>50 kW) such as heavyweight carriers (e.g. boats and trucks) and for instance those located far away from the main grid such as small-size islands and mines, will have an immediate impact on the decrease of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. Herein we present an overview of recent efforts to develop green and advanced electrode and electrolyte materials for future sustainable batteries. Further, we will also highlight both current second-life and end-of-life battery disposal sustainable strategies that are applied towards a zero-carbon future.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Sustainable Energy and Fuels Recent Review Articles and Organic Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage