Ligand-controlled regioselective and chemodivergent defluorinative functionalization of gem-difluorocyclopropanes with simple ketones†
Modulating the reaction selectivity is highly attractive and pivotal to the rational design of synthetic regimes. The defluorinative functionalization of gem-difluorocyclopropanes constitutes a promising route to construct β-vinyl fluorine scaffolds, whereas chemo- and regioselective access to α-substitution patterns remains a formidable challenge. Presented herein is a robust Pd/NHC ligand synergistic strategy that could enable the C–F bond functionalization with exclusive α-regioselectivity with simple ketones. The key design adopted enolates as π-conjugated ambident nucleophiles that undergo inner-sphere 3,3′-reductive elimination warranted by the sterically hindered-yet-flexible Pd-PEPPSI complex. The excellent branched mono-defluorinative alkylation was achieved with a sterically highly demanding IHept ligand, while subtly less bulky SIPr acted as a bifunctional ligand that not only facilitated α-selective C(sp3)–F cleavage, but also rendered the newly-formed C(sp2)–F bond as the linchpin for subsequent C–O bond formation. These examples represented an unprecedented ligand-controlled regioselective and chemodivergent approach to various mono-fluorinated terminal alkenes and/or furans from the same readily available starting materials.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2021 Chemical Science HOT Article Collection