Asymmetric hydrogenation of exocyclic γ,δ-unsaturated β-ketoesters to functionalized chiral allylic alcohols via dynamic kinetic resolution†
An iridium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of racemic exocyclic γ,δ-unsaturated β-ketoesters via dynamic kinetic resolution to functionalized chiral allylic alcohols was developed. With the chiral spiro iridium catalysts Ir-SpiroPAP, a series of racemic exocyclic γ,δ-unsaturated β-ketoesters bearing a five-, six-, or seven-membered ring were hydrogenated to the corresponding functionalized chiral allylic alcohols in high yields with good to excellent enantioselectivities (87 to >99% ee) and cis-selectivities (93 : 7 to >99 : 1). The origin of the excellent stereoselectivity was also rationalized by density functional theory calculations. Furthermore, this protocol could be performed on gram scale and at a lower catalyst loading (0.002 mol%) without the loss of reactivity and enantioselectivity, and has been successfully applied in the enantioselective synthesis of chiral carbocyclic δ-amino esters and the β-galactosidase inhibitor isogalactofagomine.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Celebrating 100 Years of Chemistry at Nankai University