Fluorescence detected circular dichroism (FDCD) for supramolecular host–guest complexes†
Fluorescence-detected circular dichroism (FDCD) spectroscopy is applied for the first time to supramolecular host–guest and host–protein systems and compared to the more known electronic circular dichroism (ECD). We find that FDCD can be an excellent choice for common supramolecular applications, e.g. for the detection and chirality sensing of chiral organic analytes, as well as for reaction monitoring. Our comprehensive investigations demonstrate that FDCD can be conducted in favorable circumstances at much lower concentrations than ECD measurements, even in chromophoric and auto-emissive biofluids such as blood serum, overcoming the sensitivity limitation of absorbance-based chiroptical spectroscopy. Besides, the combined use of FDCD and ECD can provide additional valuable information about the system, e.g. the chemical identity of an analyte or hidden aggregation phenomena. We believe that simultaneous FDCD- and ECD-based chiroptical characterization of emissive supramolecular systems will be of general benefit for characterizing fluorescent, chiral supramolecular systems due to the higher information content obtained by their combined use.