Hexafluoroisopropanol: the magical solvent for Pd-catalyzed C–H activation
Among numerous solvents available for chemical transformations, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (popularly known as HFIP) has attracted enough attention of the scientific community in recent years. Several unique features of HFIP compared to its non-fluoro analogue isopropanol have helped this solvent to make a difference in various subdomains of organic chemistry. One such area is transition metal-catalyzed C–H bond functionalization reactions. While, on one side, HFIP is emerging as a green and sustainable deep eutectic solvent (DES), on the other side, a major proportion of Pd-catalyzed C–H functionalization is heavily relying on this solvent. In particular, for distal aromatic C–H functionalizations, the exceptional impact of HFIP to elevate the yield and selectivity has made this solvent irreplaceable. Recent research studies have also highlighted the H-bond-donating ability of HFIP to enhance the chiral induction in Pd-catalyzed atroposelective C–H activation. This perspective aims to portray different shades of HFIP as a magical solvent in Pd-catalyzed C–H functionalization reactions.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Sustainable synthesis and catalysis – Chemical Science symposium collection and Most popular 2021 organic chemistry articles, 2021