Active participation of membrane lipids in inhibition of multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein†
P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a major efflux pump in humans, overexpressed in a variety of cancers and associated with the development of multi-drug resistance. Allosteric modulation by various ligands (e.g., transport substrates, inhibitors, and ATP) has been biochemically shown to directly influence structural dynamics, and thereby, the function of Pgp. However, the molecular details of such effects, particularly with respect to the role and involvement of the surrounding lipids, are not well established. Here, we employ all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the conformational landscape of Pgp in the presence of a high-affinity, third-generation inhibitor, tariquidar, in comparison to the nucleotide-free (APO) and the ATP-bound states, in order to characterize the mechanical effects of the inhibitor that might be of relevance to its blocking mechanism of Pgp. Simulations in a multi-component lipid bilayer show a dynamic equilibrium between open(er) and more closed inward-facing (IF) conformations in the APO state, with binding of ATP shifting the equilibrium towards conformations more prone to ATP hydrolysis and subsequent events in the transport cycle. In the presence of the inhibitor bound to the drug-binding pocket within the transmembrane domain (TMD), Pgp samples more open IF conformations, and the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) become highly dynamic. Interestingly, and reproduced in multiple independent simulations, the inhibitor is observed to facilitate recruitment of lipid molecules into the Pgp lumen through the two proposed drug-entry portals, where the lipid head groups from the cytoplasmic leaflet penetrate into and, in some cases, translocate inside the TMD, while the lipid tails remain extended into the bulk lipid environment. These “wedge” lipids likely enhance the inhibitor-induced conformational restriction of the TMD leading to the differential modulation of coupling pathways observed with the NBDs downstream. We suggest a novel inhibitory mechanism for tariquidar, and potentially for related third-generation Pgp inhibitors, where lipids are seen to enhance the inhibitory role in the catalytic cycle of membrane transporters.