Near-infrared fluorescent molecular probes for imaging and diagnosis of nephro-urological diseases
Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has improved imaging depth relative to conventional fluorescence imaging in the visible region, demonstrating great potential in both fundamental biomedical research and clinical practice. To improve the detection specificity, NIR fluorescence imaging probes have been under extensive development. This review summarizes the particular application of optical imaging probes with the NIR-I window (700–900 nm) or the NIR-II window (1000–1700 nm) emission for diagnosis of nephron-urological diseases. These molecular probes have enabled contrast-enhanced imaging of anatomical structures and physiological function as well as molecular imaging and early diagnosis of acute kidney injury, iatrogenic ureteral injury and bladder cancer. The design strategies of molecular probes are specifically elaborated along with representative imaging applications. The potential challenges and perspectives in this field are also discussed.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Chemical Science Recent Perspective articles, Near-infrared (NIR) luminescent probes for bioimaging and biosensing and 2020 Chemical Science HOT Article Collection