Expansion of orderly stacked metakaolinite layers and order destruction using a kaolinite-tetraphenylphosphonium chloride intercalation compound†
The expansion of metakaolinite layers with stacking order and the order destruction were examined by the heat treatment of a kaolinite-tetraphenylphosphonium chloride intercalation compound (Kaol-TPhPCl) at 540 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere followed by the manual grinding of the product using a mortar and a pestle. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and solid-state 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with magic angle spinning revealed the kaolinite dehydroxylation. Moreover, the absence of kaolinite diffraction lines and the appearance of the 1.85 nm diffraction line in the X-ray diffraction pattern, together with the observation of the hexagonal plate-like morphology in the field-emission scanning electron microscopy, indicated the kaolinite amorphization with the orderly-stacked layers. These results, along with the disappearance of the 1.85 nm diffraction line upon the manual grinding of heat-treated Kaol-TPhPCl, clearly indicated the formation of expanded metakaolinite layers with stacking order and the subsequent order destruction by manual grinding.