Exosome-mediated delivery of gene vectors for gene therapy
Gene vectors are nucleic acids that carry genetic materials or gene editing devices into cells to exert the sustained production of therapeutic proteins or to correct erroneous genes of the cells. However, the cell membrane sets a barrier for the entry of nucleic acid molecules, and nucleic acids are easily degraded or neutralized when they are externally administered into the body. Carriers to encapsulate, protect and deliver nucleic acid molecules therefore are essential for clinical applications of gene therapy. The secreted organelles, exosomes, which naturally mediate the communications between cells, have been engineered to encapsulate and deliver nucleic acids to the desired tissues and cells. The fusion of exosomes with liposomes can increase the loading capacity and also retain the targeting capability of exosomes. Altogether, this review summarizes the most recent designs of exosome-based applications for gene delivery and their future perspectives in gene therapy.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Recent Review Articles and Advanced Functional Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications