Systems and synthetic biology to elucidate secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters encoded in Streptomyces genomes
Covering: 2010 to 2020
Over the last few decades, Streptomyces have been extensively investigated for their ability to produce diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. Recent advances in Streptomyces research have been largely supported by improvements in high-throughput technology ‘omics’. From genomics, numerous secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters were predicted, increasing their genomic potential for novel bioactive compound discovery. Additional omics, including transcriptomics, translatomics, interactomics, proteomics and metabolomics, have been applied to obtain a system-level understanding spanning entire bioprocesses of Streptomyces, revealing highly interconnected and multi-layered regulatory networks for secondary metabolism. The comprehensive understanding derived from this systematic information accelerates the rational engineering of Streptomyces to enhance secondary metabolite production, integrated with the exploitation of the highly efficient ‘Design–Build–Test–Learn’ cycle in synthetic biology. In this review, we describe the current status of omics applications in Streptomyces research to better understand the organism and exploit its genetic potential for higher production of valuable secondary metabolites and novel secondary metabolite discovery.