Biogenic synthesis of Pd-nanoparticles using Areca Nut Husk Extract: a greener approach to access α-keto imides and stilbenes†
An eco-friendly green method for a one-step synthesis of palladium nanoparticles and their synthetic utility are reported. Phytochemicals like amines, alcohols, and phenols present in the Areca Nut Husk extract facilitate the reduction of Pd(II) to Pd(0). The phytochemicals serve as stabilising agents and ligands for palladium reduction and the need for an external ligand is avoided. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy of newly synthesized palladium nanoparticles revealed a spherical morphology. The catalytic activity of the nanoparticles was tested for 1,2-difunctionalization of ynamides, Heck coupling, denitrogenative coupling of phenylhydrazine and C–H arylation of indole. Moreover, catalyst recyclability, control experiments, mechanistic elucidation, and gram-scale synthesis are elaborated.