Surface passivation of organometal halide perovskites by atomic layer deposition: an investigation of the mechanism of efficient inverted planar solar cells†
Interface passivation plays a pivotal role in achieving high-efficiency organic metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). It has been recently revealed that atomic layer deposition (ALD) of wide-band gap oxides shows great potential to effectively passivate defects at the interface, and ALD is also of great technological promise for industrial upscaling. However, the conflicting observations of ALD passivation are often reported in the literature, even with very similar ALD conditions. To unveil the involved crucial mechanism, this work carefully investigates the evolution of a representative MAPbI3 perovskite surface during the ALD of Al2O3, by employing the technique of in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ALD at 125 °C was found to cause significant degradation of the perovskite; lowering the deposition temperature can largely minimize the degradation, and 75 °C was found to be the best ALD temperature. Following this conclusion, inverted planar perovskite solar cells were prepared in ambient conditions with ALD Al2O3 interlayers. Indeed, cells with the interlayer deposited at 75 °C exhibited a significantly enhanced power conversion efficiency from 18.8% (champion 19.2%) to 20.0% (champion 20.4%). Photoluminescence measurements further evidence that the ALD layer can effectively passivate defect states at the perovskite surface. Considering the great representativeness and broad applicability of MAPbI3 and ALD Al2O3, the mechanism and strategy reported herein should be of significant value for the perovskite interface engineering in general.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Popular Advances