A review on the cytotoxicity of graphene quantum dots: from experiment to simulation
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) generate intrinsic fluorescence and improve the aqueous stability of graphene oxide (GO) while maintaining wide chemical adaptability and high adsorption capacity. Despite GO's remarkable advantages in bio-imaging, bio-sensing, and other biomedical applications, many experiments and simulations have focused on the biosafety of GQDs. Here, we review the findings on the biosafety of GQDs from experiments; then, we review the results from simulated interactions with biological membranes, DNA molecules, and proteins; finally, we examine the intersection between experiments and simulations. The biosafety results from simulations are explained in detail. Based on the literature and our experiments, we also discuss the trends toward GQDs with better biosafety.