Second-harmonic generation enhancement in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides by using an epsilon-near-zero substrate†
Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) present high second-order optical nonlinearity, which is extremely desirable for, e.g., frequency conversion in nonlinear photonic devices. On the other hand, the atomic thickness of 2D materials naturally leads to low frequency converted intensities, highlighting the importance of designing structures that enhance the nonlinear response for practical applications. A number of methods to increase the pump electric field at 2D materials have been reported, relying on complex plasmonic and/or metasurface structures. Here, we take advantage of the fact that unstructured substrates with a low refractive index naturally maximize the pump field at a dielectric interface, offering a simple means to promote enhanced nonlinear optical effects. In particular, we measured second harmonic generation (SHG) in MoS2 and WS2 on fluorine tin oxide (FTO), which presents an epsilon-near zero point near our 1550 nm pump wavelength. Polarized SHG measurements reveal an SHG intensity that is one order of magnitude higher on FTO than on a glass substrate.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Popular Advances