N-Linked glycosylation profiles of therapeutic induced senescent (TIS) triple negative breast cancer cells (TNBC) and their extracellular vesicle (EV) progeny†
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has poor clinical outcomes and limited treatment options. Chemotherapy, while killing some cancer cells, can result in therapeutic-induced-senescent (TIS) cells. Senescent cells release significantly more extracellular vesicles (EVs) than non-senescent cells. Recently, N- and O-linked glycosylation alterations have been associated with senescence. We aimed to profile the N-linked glycans of whole cells, membrane, cytoplasm and EVs harvested from TIS TNBC cells and to compare these to results from non-senescent cells. TIS was induced in the Cal51 TNBC cells using the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (PTX). Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis of exoglycosidase digested N-linked glycans was carried out on TIS compared to non-treated control cells. LC-Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of the N-linked glycans and lectin blotting of samples was carried out to confirm the UPLC results. Significant differences were found in the N-glycan profile of the Cal51 membrane, cytoplasm and EV progeny of TIS compared to non-senescent cells. Protein mass spectrometry showed that the TIS cells contain different glycan modifying enzymes. The lectin, calnexin demonstrated a lower kDa size (∼58 kDa) in TIS compared to control cells (∼90 kDa) while Galectin 3 demonstrated potential proteolytic cleavage with 32 kDa and ∼22 kDa bands evident in TIS compared to non-senescent control cells with a major 32 kDa band only. TIS CAL51 cells also demonstrated a reduced adhesion to collagen I compared to control non-senescent cells. This study has shown that therapeutic-induced-senescent TNBC cells and their EV progeny, display differential N-glycan moieties compared to non-senescent Cal51 cells and their resultant EV progeny. For the future, N-glycan moieties on cancer senescent cells and their EV progeny hold potential for (i) the monitoring of treatment response as a liquid biopsy, and (ii) cancer senescent cell targeting with lectin therapies.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Glycomics & Glycoproteomics: From Analytics to Function