Dietary choline and betaine intake and risk of hypertension development: a 7.4-year follow-up
The evidence for a linkage between dietary intake of choline and betaine, a choline metabolism product, and the risk of hypertension (HTN) is limited. The current population-based cohort study was designed to investigate the possible association between dietary intake of choline and betaine with the risk of HTN in adults. This cohort study was conducted on the participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Dietary intake of choline and betaine was calculated using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database. Hypertension was diagnosed as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or used drugs to treat hypotension. In this study, 2865 subjects participated and followed-up for a median of 7.4 years. During the follow-up period, 623 patients with hypertension (22.1%) were detected. Our results revealed per every 100 mg increased dietary intake of choline, the risk of developing HTN decreased by 16% (0.84; 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.96, P for trend = 0.009). No significant association was observed between habitual dietary intake of betaine and the risk of HTN (1.10; 95% CI: 0.88 to 1.38, P for trend = 0.21). After stratification based on age, sex, and BMI, each 100 mg per d increase in dietary choline decreased the risk of HTN occurrence in subjects younger than 55 years old by 17% (0.83; 95% CI: 0.71 to 0.96) and men by 21% (0.79; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.95). The current study's findings provide further support to confirm the protective properties of choline and choline-rich foods against HTN.