Recent advances in ion selectivity with capacitive deionization
Within the last decade, in addition to water desalination, capacitive deionization (CDI) has been used for resource recovery and selective separation of target ions in multicomponent solutions. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of selective ion removal utilizing different electrode materials, carbon and non-carbon together with or without membranes, from a mixture of salt solutions, by a detailed review of the literature from the beginning until the state-of-the-art. In this venture, we review the advances made in the preparation, theoretical understanding, and the role of electrodes and membranes. We also describe how ion selectivity has been defined and used in literature. Finally, we present a theory of selective ion removal for intercalation materials that, for the first time, considers mixtures of different cations, evidencing the time-dependent selectivity of these electrodes.