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Issue 1, 2021
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Activating the I0/I+ redox couple in an aqueous I2–Zn battery to achieve a high voltage plateau

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Abstract

Rechargeable iodine conversion batteries possess promising prospects for portable energy storage with complete electron transfer and rich valence supply. However, the reaction is limited to the single I/I0 redox at a potential of only 0.54 V vs. the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), leading to a low voltage plateau at 1.30 V when Zn is employed as the anode. Herein, we show how to activate the desired reversible I0/I+ redox behavior at a potential of 0.99 V vs. SHE by electrolyte tailoring via F and Cl ion-containing salts. The electronegative F and Cl ions can stabilize the I+ during charging. In an aqueous Zn ion battery based on an optimized ZnCl2 + KCl electrolyte with abundant Cl, the I-terminated halogenated Ti3C2I2 MXene cathode delivered two well-defined discharge plateaus at 1.65 V and 1.30 V, superior to all reported aqueous I2–metal (Zn, Fe, Cu) counterparts. Together with the 108% capacity enhancement, the high voltage output resulted in a significant 231% energy density enhancement. Metallic Ti3C2I2 benefits the redox kinetics and confines the interior I species, leading to exceptional cyclic durability and rate capability. In situ Raman and ex situ multiple spectral characterizations clarify the efficient activation and stabilization effects of Cl (F) ions on reversible I0/I+ redox. Our work is believed to provide new insight into designing advanced I2–metal batteries based on the newly discovered I/I0/I+ chemistry to achieve both high voltage and enhanced capacity.

Graphical abstract: Activating the I0/I+ redox couple in an aqueous I2–Zn battery to achieve a high voltage plateau

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
26 Sep 2020
Accepted
07 Dec 2020
First published
08 Dec 2020

Energy Environ. Sci., 2021,14, 407-413
Article type
Paper

Activating the I0/I+ redox couple in an aqueous I2–Zn battery to achieve a high voltage plateau

X. Li, M. Li, Z. Huang, G. Liang, Z. Chen, Q. Yang, Q. Huang and C. Zhi, Energy Environ. Sci., 2021, 14, 407
DOI: 10.1039/D0EE03086D

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