A review on g-C3N4/graphene nanocomposites: multifunctional roles of graphene in the nanohybrid photocatalyst toward photocatalytic applications
2-Dimensional conductive surface hybrid semiconducting materials have been drawing attention among researchers owing to their photocatalytic performance toward environmental remediation and energy conversion. Surface hybridization between 2D hybrid nanomaterials is considered well-organized owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, inhibition toward photocorrosion, and expansion in spectral response. New approaches toward structural design at the nanoscale level introduce tailored electronic properties and extend their applications as visible light-induced photocatalysts. In particular, the large specific surface area, an increased number of active sites, and high charge mobility endow these 2D/2D hybrid materials with remarkably high performance. In view of recent advances, unlike other reviews in this field and our research work, in this review, we have summarized the designing methods, properties, photocatalytic applications, and the mechanisms of carbon-based 2D/2D hybrid material with special reference to g-C3N4/graphene nanostructured hybrids. The architectural assembly of well-connected g-C3N4/graphene nanostructured hybrid materials exhibit superior activities due to the extended light absorption and improved transportation of charge across the interface. We have categorically discussed the multifunctional role of graphene as a functional material, as a conductor, as a solid-state mediator, and as a co-catalyst in g-C3N4/graphene nanostructured hybrids. We hope that this review will offer new insights into lucid design strategies for efficient photocatalysts to address energy and environmental problems in a sustainable manner.