Two-dimensional biomaterials: material science, biological effect and biomedical engineering applications
To date, nanotechnology has increasingly been identified as a promising and efficient means to address a number of challenges associated with public health. In the past decade, two-dimensional (2D) biomaterials, as a unique nanoplatform with planar topology, have attracted explosive interest in various fields such as biomedicine due to their unique morphology, physicochemical properties and biological effect. Motivated by the progress of graphene in biomedicine, dozens of types of ultrathin 2D biomaterials have found versatile bio-applications, including biosensing, biomedical imaging, delivery of therapeutic agents, cancer theranostics, tissue engineering, as well as others. The effective utilization of 2D biomaterials stems from the in-depth knowledge of structure–property–bioactivity–biosafety–application–performance relationships. A comprehensive summary of 2D biomaterials for biomedicine is still lacking. In this comprehensive review, we aim to concentrate on the state-of-the-art 2D biomaterials with a particular focus on their versatile biomedical applications. In particular, we discuss the design, fabrication and functionalization of 2D biomaterials used for diverse biomedical applications based on the up-to-date progress. Furthermore, the interactions between 2D biomaterials and biological systems on the spatial–temporal scale are highlighted, which will deepen the understanding of the underlying action mechanism of 2D biomaterials aiding their design with improved functionalities. Finally, taking the bench-to-bedside as a focus, we conclude this review by proposing the current crucial issues/challenges and presenting the future development directions to advance the clinical translation of these emerging 2D biomaterials.