Simple lattice model of self-assembling metal–organic layers of pyridyl-substituted porphyrins and copper on Au(111) surface†
A simple lattice model of metal–organic adsorption layers self-assembling on a Au(111) surface and based on pyridyl-substituted porphyrins differing in the number of functional groups and their position has been proposed. The model has been parameterized using DFT methods. The ground state analysis of the considered model demonstrates the variety of surface-confined metal–organic networks (SMONs) containing square, linear, and discrete elements appearing in the adsorption layer depending on the partial pressure of the components. The SMONs comprising more symmetrical molecules with a greater number of pyridyl substituents in the porphyrin core exhibit more diverse phase behavior. Structures of the phase diagrams were verified at nonzero temperatures using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that the continuous SMONs have higher thermal stability at relatively low partial pressures of the organic component, while the linear and discrete SMONs are more thermally stable at high pressure. Depending on the partial pressure of the organic component, thermal destruction of continuous SMONs occur either through the formation of defects/islands having structures of the linear SMONs, or through the sublimation of individual structural elements. Melting of linear SMONs reveals the appearance of 2D pores or islands of a purely organic phase. The latter fact is confirmed by the experimentally observed coexistence of these phases.