Behavior of implanted Xe, Kr and Ar in nanodiamonds and thin graphene stacks: experiment and modeling
Implantation and subsequent behaviour of heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, and Xe) in few-layer graphene sheets and in nanodiamonds are studied both using computational methods and experimentally using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides substantial support for Xe-vacancy (Xe-V) defects as main sites for Xe in nanodiamonds. It is shown that noble gases in thin graphene stacks distort the layers, forming bulges. The energy of an ion placed in between flat graphene sheets is notably lower than that in domains with high curvature. However, if the ion is trapped in the curved domain, considerable additional energy is required to displace it. This phenomenon is likely responsible for strong binding of noble gases implanted into disordered carbonaceous phase in meteorites (the Q-component).