Combination strategies for antithrombotic biomaterials: an emerging trend towards hemocompatibility
Surface-induced thrombosis is a frequent, critical issue for blood-contacting medical devices that poses a serious threat to patient safety and device functionality. Antithrombotic material design strategies including the immobilization of anticoagulants, alterations in surface chemistries and morphology, and the release of antithrombotic compounds have made great strides in the field with the ultimate goal of circumventing the need for systemic anticoagulation, but have yet to achieve the same hemocompatibility as the native endothelium. Given that the endothelium achieves this state through the use of many mechanisms of action, there is a rising trend in combining these established design strategies for improved antithrombotic actions. Here, we describe this emerging paradigm, highlighting the apparent advantages of multiple antithrombotic mechanisms of action and discussing the demonstrated potential of this new direction.