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Issue 10, 2021

Detection of low glucose levels in sweat with colorimetric wearable biosensors

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Abstract

Low glucose levels during exercise may lead to hypoglycemia, which can have grave consequences in diabetic athletes. Mobile colorimetric wearable biosensors that measure glucose levels in sweat are ideal for self-monitoring as they can utilize the camera in smartphones for signal reading. However, colorimetric biosensors proposed thus far have higher limit of detection (LOD) than electrochemical devices, which makes them unsuitable for detecting hypoglycemia. In this manuscript we describe colorimetric wearable biosensors that detect glucose in sweat with an LOD of 0.01 mM and a dynamic range up to 0.15 mM. The devices are made of filter paper and incorporate a sweat volume sensor and a color chart for signal correction. The biosensors do not suffer from interferences originated by delayed sample readings, or differences in bending angle and sample pH. When applied to volunteers performing an exercise routine, sweat glucose levels corrected with sweat volume measurements correlated well with blood glucose measurements performed with a commercial device. The devices are lightweight and easily disposable. These features, along with the smartphone-based colorimetric readout, makes them promising as “over-the-counter” tests for measuring glucose levels non-invasively during exercise.

Graphical abstract: Detection of low glucose levels in sweat with colorimetric wearable biosensors

Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
15 Feb 2021
Accepted
18 Mar 2021
First published
13 Apr 2021

This article is Open Access

Analyst, 2021,146, 3273-3279
Article type
Paper

Detection of low glucose levels in sweat with colorimetric wearable biosensors

A. Vaquer, E. Barón and R. de la Rica, Analyst, 2021, 146, 3273 DOI: 10.1039/D1AN00283J

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. You can use material from this article in other publications without requesting further permissions from the RSC, provided that the correct acknowledgement is given.

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