4D printed shape memory metamaterial for vibration bandgap switching and active elastic-wave guiding†
Acoustic/elastic metamaterials that rely on engineered microstructures instead of chemical composition enable a rich variety of extraordinary effective properties that are suited for various applications including vibration/noise isolation, high-resolution medical imaging, and energy harvesting and mitigation. However, the static nature of these elastic wave guides limits their potential for active elastic-wave guiding, as microstructure transformation remains a challenge to effectively apply in traditional elastic metamaterials due to the interplay of polarization and structural sensitivity. Here, a tunable, locally resonant structural waveguide is proposed and demonstrated for active vibration bandgap switching and elastic-wave manipulation between 1000–4000 Hz based on 3D printed building blocks of zinc-neutralized poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) ionomer (Surlyn 9910). The ionomer exhibits shape memory behavior to enable rearrangement into new shape patterns through application of thermal stimuli that tunes mechanical performance in both space and time dimensions (4D metamaterial). The thermally induced shape-reorganization is programed to flip a series of frequency bands from passbands to bandgaps and vice versa. The continuously switched bandwidth can exceed 500 Hz. Consequently, altering the bandgap from “on” to “off” produces programmable elastic-wave propagation paths to achieve active wave guiding phenomena. An anisotropic cantilever-in-mass model is demonstrated to predict the self-adaptive dynamic responses of the printed structures with good agreement between the analytical work and experimental results. The tunable metamaterial-based waveguides illustrate the potential of 4D printed shape memory polymers in the designing and manufacturing of intelligent devices for elastic-wave control and vibration isolation.