Benzocyclobutene polymer as an additive for a benzocyclobutene-fullerene: application in stable p–i–n perovskite solar cells†
A poly(methacrylate) with benzocyclobutene side chains, CL, has been synthesized by radical polymerization for use as a crosslinking additive for a previously reported benzocyclobutene-functionalized fullerene, PCBCB, which can be thermally insolubilized following solution processing. Films of PCBCB incorporating CL and n-doped with (IrCp*Cp)2 exhibit in-plane electrical conductivities around ten times higher than those of n-doped films without CL, while the use of CL also reduces leaching of dopant ions from the film upon washing. The performance and stability of perovskite solar cells using insolubilized PCBCB:CL, insolubilized PCBCB, or PCBM as top electron-extraction layers are compared; cells with undoped PCBCB:CL extraction layers exhibit higher average and maximum power conversion efficiencies (16 and 18.5%, respectively) than their PCBM and PCBCB counterparts. Devices with undoped PCBCB:CL extraction layers also showed excellent thermal stability, retaining 92% of their stabilized power output after aging for 3000 h at 85 °C in the dark in a nitrogen atmosphere.