In vivo oral insulin delivery via covalent organic frameworks†
With diabetes being the 7th leading cause of death worldwide, overcoming issues limiting the oral administration of insulin is of global significance. The development of imine-linked-covalent organic framework (nCOF) nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery to overcome these delivery barriers is herein reported. A gastro-resistant nCOF was prepared from layered nanosheets with insulin loaded between the nanosheet layers. The insulin-loaded nCOF exhibited insulin protection in digestive fluids in vitro as well as glucose-responsive release, and this hyperglycemia-induced release was confirmed in vivo in diabetic rats without noticeable toxic effects. This is strong evidence that nCOF-based oral insulin delivery systems could replace traditional subcutaneous injections easing insulin therapy.