Fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based screening for protein kinase C ligands using 6-methoxynaphthalene-labeled 1,2-diacylglycerol-lactones†
Protein kinase C (PKC) is associated with a central cellular signal transduction pathway and disorders such as cancer and Alzheimer-type dementia and is therefore a target for the treatment of these diseases. The development of simple methods suitable for high-throughput screening to find potent PKC ligands is desirable. We have developed an assay based on fluorescence-quenching screening with a solvatochromic fluorophore attached to a competitive probe and its alternative method based on Förster/fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) phenomena. Here, an improved FRET-based PKC binding assay using a diacylglycerol (DAG) lactone labeled with a donor fluorescent dye, 6-methoxynaphthalene (6MN), was developed. The 6MN-labeled DAG-lactone has a higher binding affinity for the PKCδ C1b domain and the fluorescent PKCδ C1b domain labeled by fluorescein as an acceptor fluorescent dye (Fl-δC1b) than the diethylaminocoumarin (DEAC)-labeled DAG-lactone. The combination of the 6MN-labeled DAG-lactone and Fl-δC1b showed a change in fluorescence response larger than that of the DEAC-labeled DAG-lactone and Fl-δC1b. The IC50 values of known PKC ligands calculated by the present FRET-based method using 6MN-labeled DAG-lactone agree well with the Ki values obtained by the conventional radioisotope-based assays. Some false positive compounds, identified by the previous solvatochromic fluorophore-based method, were found to be negative by this method. The present FRET-based PKC binding assay is more sensitive and could be more useful.