Beyond osmium: progress in 1,2-amino oxygenation of alkenes, 1,3-dienes, alkynes, and allenes
Olefin 1,2-difunctionalization has emerged as a popular strategy within modern synthetic chemistry for the synthesis of vicinal amino alcohols and derivatives. The advantage of this approach is the single-step simplicity for rapid diversification, feedstock nature of the olefin starting materials, and the possible modularity of the components. Although there is a vast number of possible iterations of 1,2-olefin difunctionalization, 1,2-amino oxygenation is of particular interest due to the prevalence of both oxygen and nitrogen within pharmaceuticals, natural products, agrochemicals, and synthetic ligands. The Sharpless amino hydroxylation provided seminal results in this field and displayed the value in achieving methods of this nature. However, a vast number of new and novel methods have emerged in recent decades. This review provides a comprehensive review of modern advances in accomplishing 1,2-amino oxygenation of alkenes, 1,3-dienes, alkynes, and allenes that move beyond osmium to a range of other transition metals and more modern strategies such as electrochemical, photochemical, and biochemical reactivity.