Natural polyenic macrolactams and polycyclic derivatives generated by transannular pericyclic reactions: optimized biogenesis challenging chemical synthesis
Covering from 1992 to the end of 2020-11-20.
Genetically-encoded polyenic macrolactams, which are constructed by Nature using hybrid polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthase (PKSs/NRPSs) assembly lines, are part of the large collection of natural products isolated from bacteria. Activation of cryptic (i.e., silent) gene clusters in these microorganisms has more recently allowed to generate and eventually isolate additional members of the family. Having two unsaturated fragments separated by short saturated chains, the primary macrolactam is posited to undergo transannular reactions and further rearrangements thus leading to the generation of a structurally diverse collection of polycyclic (natural) products and oxidized derivatives. The review will cover the challenges that scientists face on the isolation of these unstable compounds from the cultures of the producing microorganisms, their structural characterization, biological activities, optimized biogenetic routes, as well as the skeletal rearrangements of the primary structures of the natural macrolactams derived from pericyclic reactions of the polyenic fragments. The efforts of the synthetic chemists to emulate Nature on the successful generation and structural confirmation of these natural products will also be reported.