MXenes and MXene-based materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: recent advances
In view of their unique planar structure and outstanding physical and chemical properties, two-dimensional (2D) materials have garnered the attention of interdisciplinary researchers in the domain of biomedical and clinical applications. MXenes are 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides with outstanding characteristics, comprising huge surface area, biocompatibility, low toxicity, significant electrical conductivity, antibacterial activity and hydrophilicity. Although numerous investigations have demonstrated the promising potential of MXenes for different biomedical applications that include biosensing, bioimaging, cancer therapy, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery, there are still important challenging issues pertaining to their stability in physiological environments, sustained/controlled release of drugs, and biodegradability. The well-designed ultra-thin MXene nanosheets are deployable as promising biocompatible inorganic nanoplatforms for assorted biomedical applications via the clinical translation of nanomedicine; MXenes are good candidates for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Herein, recent progresses on 2D MXenes for state-of-the-art tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are discussed with emphasis on the significant challenges and future perspectives.