p-Type molecular doping by charge transfer in halide perovskite†
Electronic technologies critically rely on the ability to broadly dope the active semiconductor; yet the promising class of halide perovskite semiconductors so far does not allow for significant control over carrier type (p- or n-) and density. The molecular doping approach offers important opportunities for generating free carriers through charge transfer. In this work, we demonstrate effective p-doping of MAPb0.5Sn0.5I3 films using the molecular dopant F4TCNQ as a grain boundary coating, offering a conductivity and hole density tuning range of up to five orders of magnitude, associated with a 190 meV Fermi level down-shift. While charge transfer between MAPb0.5Sn0.5I3 and F4TCNQ appears efficient, dopant ionization decreases with increasing Pb content, highlighting the need for appropriate energy offset between host and dopant molecule. Finally, we show that electrical p-doping impacts the perovskite optoelectronic properties, with a hole recombination lifetime increase of over one order of magnitude, suggesting passivation of deep traps.