Unraveling the compositional heterogeneity and carrier dynamics of alkali cation doped 3D/2D perovskites with improved stability†
Preventing the degradation of hybrid perovskites by humid air remains a challenge for their future commercial utilization. 3D/2D perovskites with hierarchical architecture have attracted significant attention due to their promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) and device stability. Here, we report a novel 3D/2D planar bi-layer perovskite obtained by growing a 2D Ruddlesden–Popper layer on top of a 3D rubidium (Rb+)-doped triple-cation perovskite. Rb+ cation incorporation decreases the work function, and 3D/2D films show smaller work function values compared to classic 3D perovskites. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the presence of a 2D perovskite capping layer and observes halide migration. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS) shows that the average DC carrier mobility for the 3D/2D hierarchical structures and their 3D counterparts is one order of magnitude higher than that for the 2D perovskite. The resulting 3D/2D Rb+-incorporated perovskite solar cells show a peak PCE of >20%, which is slightly higher than their 3D counterparts (19.5%). Benefiting from moisture resistivity, the 3D/2D perovskite photovoltaics show significantly improved long-term stability by retaining 81% of the initial PCE after 60 days of exposure to ambient air (50 ± 10% relative humidity) without encapsulation, highlighting the potential of engineered stable 3D/2D perovskite solar cells for their commercial utilization.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Perovskites