Liquid marble-based digital microfluidics – fundamentals and applications
Liquid marbles are droplets with volume typically on the order of microliters coated with hydrophobic powder. Their versatility, ease of use and low cost make liquid marbles an attractive platform for digital microfluidics. This paper provides the state of the art of discoveries in the physics of liquid marbles and their practical applications. The paper first discusses the fundamental properties of liquid marbles, followed by the summary of different techniques for the synthesis of liquid marbles. Next, manipulation techniques for handling liquid marbles are discussed. Applications of liquid marbles are categorised according to their use as chemical and biological reactors. The paper concludes with perspectives on the future development of liquid marble-based digital microfluidics.